Thursday, December 26, 2019
Henry James (1843-1916) was a psychological realist rather than a photographic realist who was of the view that the duty of the artist is to represent life, not to produce it. His best works include The American, Roderick Hudson, The Portrait of a Lady, The Tragic Muse, The Spoils of Poynton, The Wings of the Dove, The Ambassadors and The Golden Bowl. Robert Shulman says that Ã¢â¬Å"the first-generation realists and their successors did justice to the surfaces of American life through the conventions of presentational realismÃ¢â¬âplausibly, rendered speech, recognizable settings and recognizable characters facing everyday problems all open to the interpretation of a middle-class, predominantly feminine audience. American realists also penetratedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Generally, modernists were driven by the belief that the assurances once provided by religion, politics, or society no longer sufficed. This belief intensified after World War I, when it seemed to many that hi story itself was coming to an end. The modern life was horrific, chaotic and ultimately futile. The modernist period also saw a radical experimentation in literary form and expression. American modernism seemed to be of two kinds. One was cosmopolitan, created by expatriate writers such as Ezra Pound, Hilda Doolittle, Stein and T.S. Eliot. These writers sought to internationalize literature, by making powerful connections between their work and a broad range of past literature. The other group was non-expatriate American modernists such as Stevens, Williams, Marianne Moore, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway developed a modernist literature that was connected to American traditions. American modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the United States starting at the turn of the twentieth century with its core period between World War I and World War II and continuing into the twenty first century. Modernism, then, changed during the thirties, with the depression, the New Deal reforms etc. that followed the stock market crash of 1929. The fictions written in the thirties are called proletarian literature. It was an outgrowth of naturalism. It laid its emphasis on theShow MoreRelatedDid the Impact of the Beatles Sgt Pepper Album Help Redefine Popular Music as a Culturally Significant Art Form?4164 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesmusic as a culturally significant art form? Summary of Assignment Choose an artist from the period 1900-1970 and to examine their relationship to the cultural and social framework of their era with reference to an important or influential album. Introduction In this essay I will be critically analysing and evaluating Ã¢â¬ËThe BeatlesÃ¢â¬â¢ Sgt. Peppers album in relation to their associated genre, their lyrics, their musical creativity, their social and political context, their overall impact on musicRead MoreChildrens Literature13219 Words Ã |Ã 53 Pagesarea of study. Its richness is reflected in the vast amount of theories that permeate and surround the term. From feminist studies to new historicism, literary theory places the child/text/context relationship on varying ideological and political axes. The reconceptualization of its history and the postmodern growth of radical alternative literary Ã¢â¬Å"historiesÃ¢â¬ further complicate a retelling of the history of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. Consequently, it becomes not only a difficult but also a contentiousRead MoreMetz Film Language a Semiotics of the Cinema PDF100902 Words Ã |Ã 316 PagesOxford University Press, 1974. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-226-52130-3 (pbk.) 1. Motion picturesÃ¢â¬âSemiotics. 2. Motion picturesÃ¢â¬â Philosophy. I. Title. PN1995.M4513 1991 791.43 014Ã¢â¬âdc20 90-46965 C1P The French edition of Christian Metz s Essais sur la signification au cinema, volume 1, was published by Editions Klincksieck in 1971, Ã © Editions Klincksieck, 1968. ÃËThe paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-PermanenceRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesthe cold war. In addition to the problems posed for conceptualizing the twentieth century as a discrete era of world history due to overlap with the preceding period and disconcertingly radical shifts in the course of global development in the 1900s, contradictory forces and trends, which perhaps more than any other attribute distinguish this turbulent phase of the human experience, render it impervious to generalized pronouncements and difficult to conceptualize broadly. As the essays in thisRead MoreOpportunities23827 Words Ã |Ã 96 Pagesown.Ã¢â¬ 4 Schultz had bought the company in 1987, when it was still a small Seattle retailer, mainly selling coffee beans. In the ensuing nine years, it had become the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s largest purveyor of specialty coffee, selling the beverage served in various ways, along with coffee beans and related food and merchandise. Between 1992 and 1996, annual revenues had increased more than 650%, climbing to almost $700 million (Exhibit 5).5 Most of this increase had been driven by the swift proliferationRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesmanaging, organizing and reflecting on both formal and informal structures, and in this respect you will find this book timely, interesting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.Ã¢â¬â¢s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly relevant for understanding contemporary organizational dilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as provides insightful examples from the
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Dabney Matchett III October 27, 2014 History 338 Paper Serfdom in Russia started in the 11th century with its origins in Kievan Rus. Slavery in the United States started in 1700s with the American South being its most prevalent. Russia abolished serfdom in 1861; at the same time, the American Civil War, fought between the Union and the Confederacy, was in its first year with slavery being one of the main fighting points. The war ended in 1865, and slavery was abolished as well. Though serfdom and slavery shared many similarities, they also shared several differences, and made serfdom seem even worse than slavery. One of the many similarities between serfdom and slavery was that in both institutions, they were hereditary. This meant thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In interviews with a few of the slaves in from 1936 to 1938, as part of the Federal WritersÃ¢â¬â¢ Projects, a WPA program, one of slaves spoke on the punishment she received: Sallie Crane: I been whipped from sunup till sundown. Off and on, you know. They whip me till they got tired and they go and rest and come out and start again. They kept a bowl filled with vinegar and salt and pepper settinÃ¢â¬â¢ nearby, and when they had whipped me till the blood come, they would take the mop and sponge the cuts with this stuff so that they would hurt more. These various punishments were often carried out to punish slaves for not doing their work, or simply for assert dominance. In Russia, the treatment of serfs were frequent and just as vicious as the slaves. According to Steven L. Hoch, in Petrovoskoe, a serf estate in Russia, Ã¢â¬Å"at least 79 percent of the adult males [serfs] were flogged, 24 percent more than onceÃ¢â¬ from September 1826 through August 1828. In addition, the serfs were also subjected to being forcibly recruited into the army, being exiled, confinement, and forcing them to wear iron collars around their necks. The most serious punishment however, seemed to be the most innocuous: shaving half of a serf manÃ¢â¬â¢s hair and beard. In Serfdom and Social Control, the shaving was used in the most extreme cases and was considered Ã¢â¬Å"a particularly odious form of disciplineÃ¢â¬ . The bailiffs in charge of the serfs used punishment to keep
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
The internet has significantly increased the potential for individuals to communicate with each other no matter where they may be located. It has also broadened the number of social relationships that an individual may carry on at any one time. Social networking sites (SNS) have become instrumental for providing free, user friendly access for communicating with others over the internet. Face book has quickly grown to become one of the most popular SNS worldwide. Face book currently has over 1 billion active users worldwide and on average 584 million people use Face book daily . Ellison et al. point out that the core demographic segment of 18 to 24 year olds is growing the fastest at a rate of 74% year on year . Face book was originally created as a vehicle for students to create and maintain social ties that were relevant to the university experience . Today, Face book has become the SNS of choice for high school and college students. Within the college community it is difficult to find a student who is not on Face book. Ellison et al. , report that in 2007, as many as 94 percent of undergraduate students in the United States were Face book users . Not only does social media have wide spread use among college students, the amount of time that students spend on Social media is on the increase. On average, users in the aggregate spent more than 10. 5 billion minutes per day on their personal computers logged on to Social media during January of 2012. Aggregate minutes per day increased 57% and average minutes per user per day increased by 14% in January 2012 as compared to January 2011 Given that a very large percentage of college students use Social media and the amount of time that they are spending logged on to Social media, the question arises as whether Social media use negatively impacts academic performance. To date, the research on the relationship between time spent on Social media and academic performance has provided mixed results. One motivation for this study is to test whether there is a negative relationship between Social media use and academic performance. Given the popularity of Social media among College students, researchers have begun to focus on individual factors that may be related to the amount of time that students spend on Face book. One approach has been to consider the influence of personality variables on Social media use . A second motivation of this paper is to investigate whether personality variables are related to Social media use Problem statement Impact of social media on the performance of students depend on usage of social networking sites like Face book, YouTube and twitter but personality traits of users also have great role on the usage of social networking sites and academic performance. SOCIAL MEDIA (independent variable) Social media are said to be a general name for Websites that permit users to share content, Media, photographs etc. The common ones are the famous networking sites like MySpace, Friend ster, Face book, YouTube, Flicker, Photo bucket, etc. They are therefore described as media for social interactions which employs highly accessible and large communication apparatus. It is a web based and mobile technology which allows communication to become active and interactive dialogue. According to Kaplan etal, it is a group of Internet-based applications that builds on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. 0 which as he says, allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content[6*]. Some of the advantages of social media or the characteristics that make it distinct from other media-traditional/industrial electronic and print are: 1. They are easily accessible and relatively cheaper even sometimes free. 2. It allows everyone, including individuals to publish and access information unlike the industrial media for which vital resources are required for publishing information. 3. It is a decentralized media with minimum hierarchy which is distinguished by multiple points of production and uses. It requires less specialized skill and technical training, once access is gained into it, it could be operated or used by anybody with less difficulty. 5. It guarantees prompt and immediate response. However, since a good number of traditional/industrial media have begun to use similar facilities, this may not continue to be a distinctive feature of social media for a long time. 6. Social media unlike industrial/traditional one is ductile and malleable. Errors in information could be corrected with immediate effect by way of comments and editing TIME AS SUBVARIABLE: Further examination of whether the time spent on the Internet was or was not related to studying or specific academic content is restricted. A more thorough examination of Internet activities may help explain the interesting findings that the majority of FB users and nonusers reporting using comparable percentages of daily Internet use, yet the amount of time spent studying differs dramatically (i. e. , and GPA). For example, do the students logging 1 to 2 hours per day on the Internet access and stay online inone full block of time, or is 1 to 2 hours per day spread out across several waking hours while students are engaged in other activities? How this has an impact on a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s study time is difficult to decipher without knowing the specifics of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Internet use. Another issue to consider is the difference in how the variables were measured in the survey. Hours spent studying was polled for weekly use, and Internet use was surveyed as a daily average. More specifically with regards to how students use the Internet, if a student is engaged in their daily Internet use in one block of time during the day, and that block of time is concurrent with study time, this may support the crux of the multitasking supposition in this article. One question that comes to mind is if for the FB nonusers, time spent on the Internet, if not academically-related, would produce similar results as in the FB use GPA/study time relationship in the current study. If general Internet activity was done concurrently with studying, based in the multitasking literature, the logical answer would be yes. Also, related to this is that though total Internet time usage is equivalent, FB users spent less of the time remaining outside of class studying than nonusers. They also report spending more time on social extracurricular activities yet less time on working for pay. This opens the question of whether FB is a cause or is rather a result of the fact that FB users differ from non users in a fundamental way. Facebook Ã ® and Academic Performance 28 Another interesting descriptive finding was that a strong majority of FB users claimed to use their accounts either daily or multiple times per day. One question that emerges from this is what exactly is meant by daily or multiple times per day. Does this indicate that FB users log onto FB and leave it open all day, or that they log in and out several times a day? Related to multitasking, does this mean that a user logs onto FB while studying, or begins studying while being logged on, leaving FB open the entire duration of study? Facebook and academic performance: In 2009 a draft manuscript suggested that Facebook use might be related to lower academic achievement in college and graduate school (Karpinski, 2009). As with claims of dangers from older media, a recent study (and corresponding press release) indicating that Facebook use and collegiate grade point averages (GPA) were negatively correlated generated a great deal of media hype (Karpinski, 2009). Kolek and Saunders  reported that they found no relationship between Facebook use and academic performance. High levels of Facebook use may be related to a reduction in academic performance among college students. (Karipinski and Duberstein (10) and kirschner and karipinski). The major implication of this study is the finding that Facebook use is negatively related to academic performance. The nature of the relationship may be far more complex than the simple assumption that students who spend more time on Facebook also spend less time studying and completing academic work. Time on Facebook may replace activities that are not of an academic nature but none the less may have an impact on academic performance such as face to face communications with peers or the number of hours that students sleep. Personality and Facebook Use: In spite of the popularity of Facebook, it is only in the last few years that research has emerged that consider the relationship between personality variables and Facebook use . Most of these studies have focused on personality and the types of activities that users engage in on Facebook rather than the time spent on Facebook. Personality traits are defined as an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s dispositions or tendencies that lead to certain attitudinal and behavioral patterns across situations . The Five-Factor Model (FFM) is the most widely accepted model of personality and has emerged as the unifying theory for the study of personality . The FFM is based on the theory that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality may be evaluated by determining how they rank on five bipolar factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness . Each of these factors integrate numerous narrow traits that had previous been applied across numerous domains with limited success. These basic tendencies are inborn and developed throughout oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lifespan, influencing an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, feelings and actions . Neuroticism refers to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional stability. Individuals who are high on neuroticism often feel anxious, angry, and sad and cope poorly with stress. Individuals who are low on neuroticism are stable, even tempered and manage stress well. People who score high on neuroticism may be more inclined to spend time on Facebook because they may try to make themselves look as attractive as possible  or alternatively because Facebook enables neurotic personalities to take longer to contemplate what they are going to say as opposed to face to face contact [14, 18]. Extraversion represents an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s level of sociability and outgoingness. Extraverts take an energetic approach towards the outside world and can be generally described as sociable, active, assertive and expressing positive emotions. Introverts tend to be withdrawn, less active and express less positive emotions. There are two competing views of the relationship between extraversion and Facebook use. On the one hand, extroverts are predicted to spend more time on Facebook because it is another platform for them to communicate with friends and contacts made off-line. On the other hand, introverts may prefer to communicate using Facebook because it allows them to compensate for their lack of interpersonal skills . Openness to experience refers to the extent to which an individual is willing to explore new situations. Individuals who are open to experience generally prefer variety, novel experiences, and are intellectually curious. Individuals who are low in openness are typically conservative, prefer uniformity and are intellectually disinterested. Individuals who score high in openness may be more inclined to spend time on Facebook because of the novel ways in which they may be able to communicate with others and their openness to new experiences [4, 14, 18]. Agreeableness reflects the extent to which an individual engages in and endorses interpersonal cooperation. Agreeable individuals are friendly to others, and tend to be social, warm and trusting whereas disagreeable individuals are less pleasant to others, argumentative, uncooperative and harsh. Individuals who score high in agreeableness tend to be amenable to entering relationships however there is no compelling reason why they would do so in an online environment . Individuals who score low in agreeableness may be less inclined to use Facebook to avoid having to be sociable to others with whom they communicate [4, 18]. Conscientiousness refers to the extent to which an individual is organized, careful and shows self-control. Conscientious individuals have control over their impulses and are orderly, diligent and strive to achieve goals. Unconscientiously individuals are predisposed toward acting impulsively, being disorganized and tend to procrastinate on tasks . Individuals who score high on conscientiousness may spend less time on Facebook because they may perceive time spent on Facebook to avoid distraction from achieving their goals.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Yla Eason and a study in Woman Entrepreneurship The Olmec Toys have made its entry into the highly competitive market for dolls and toys and has been able to carve out its own niche space within a short period of time. The reason for its huge growth has been due to the extraordinary and single minded efforts of its founder and president Yla Eason. Not only she belonged to the black community, but that she was bringing out a concept hitherto not seen and that is the novel idea now popularly known as the ethnically correct dolls and toys'. Yla Eason introduced the concept of making ethnically correct toys for the other races ranging from the African-American, Asian, Hispanic, Chinese and other ethnic groups in the US as well as in the world. The idea struck her in a sort of shock revelation when her three year old son Menelik shook her inner conscience when he stated that he would never be like the model hero He-Man for the latter was white. This posture indicated a negative attitude which her child along with the rest of the children belonging to the ethnic groups among the US population was growing up with. Her belief was confirmed when she realized that there wasn't even a single toy retailer in the whole of New York who was selling a prototype of an African- American super hero. Need essay sample on "Yla Eason and a study in Woman Entrepreneurship" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed There was little doubt as her careful research has revealed that the ethnic children were being made to accept their inferiority and so would they limit their own future aspirations when they face the grown up world. This made her all the more determined to bring forth to the world a model of an ethnically correct toy for the children of the community. Her ideas resonated with those of famed psychologists Dr James Comer and Dr Alvin Poussaint who in their book Raising Black Children' wrote that when children are made to play with different colored toys they understand the diversity of their world. These children when they grow up develop a positive attitude and have generally more tolerance level while accepting the difference in others. In order to prove her point for getting the toy retailers into her fold she collected quantitative data and showed them how in US there was 30% non white below ten years and that their population was steadily rising. It was also revealed through her questioning of parents belonging to different ethnic population that all of them preferred toys that would have similar features of their own children. In order to show that she was quite serious she formed Olmec Toys and brought out her first prototype model of a Sun-Man with darker skin color and different facial structures which was similar to the characteristics of the ethnic population. Then came the stumbling block and that was there were no takers especially among the large American retail giants who had fed themselves on the staple diet that there was no other toy other than those that belonged to the Caucasian group. Even the black dolls that were displayed in these showrooms were Caucasian in all aspect except that they have been dipped in black paint. For Yla Eason there were several problems that stood in the way for her enterprise to make inroads into the highly competitive market of toys where only large players with proven financial prowess and experience could only survive. Even though she got the initial finance from her mother and friends to start the venture she however couldn't get her model Sun-Man into the large retail windows where they could be prominently displayed. There was of course biasness prevalent among the top retailers. The retailers were already clogged with the idea that people generally accepted white toys and even black groups had become accustomed to purchasing them and hence they see no need for any change. The second problem she faced was that there was no proper research done in this particular area of ethnically suitable toy market. Although the idea was brilliant in itself yet Eason would have to get the message across to the whole of the ethnic group if she ever wishes to sell her toys. Presently, even the ethnic children too were quite satisfied with the toys having white Caucasian features which they have already taken for granted to be the standard look for toys of any kind. Besides, by introducing a unique concept Eason was trying to sell a hitherto untested idea and the large retailers were simply not interested in taking the risks. Lastly, she wanted to change the pattern of thinking and this would mean a paradigm shift from the time tested market for toys which was not quite acceptable to the majority of the manufacturers and retailers. The problem faced by Yla Eason while launching Olmec Toys were several and would have made an average entrepreneur turn away especially when facing the competitive atmosphere of the toys market. Although there was a special niche segment in the market which has so far been untapped yet there was severe lack of publicity on the part of Olmec Toys to make inroads into the competitive market of toys. Perhaps there was also the consistent biasness on the part of the big toy retailers that Yla Eason was a black and a woman entrepreneur and that too making a radical change to the concept of toy manufacturing wasn't quite acceptable to the white majority who were the leaders in the toy manufacturing sector in US. There is sufficient reason to believe that the retailers along with the present manufacturers were trying to stall whatever efforts Yla Eason was trying to secure for her company by concentrating on a niche market segment. Undoubtedly, Yla Eason was a woman with an unusually strong personality and she could have made better progress if she would have made some calculative steps. In the first place she could have tapped the market potential through the website in these internet savvy times. The Olmec Toys could have made into the latest news with Yla Eason making the public, especially the ethnic minorities, realize the biasness connected with the white dominated toys through various newspapers before the launch explicitly stating her intentions of giving role model toys for the minority children. She could have thought over the matter given her background as a reporter with an MBA. With the publicity she could have approached the retailers with much better reason. It really counts if the media makes a lot of news and too for the minority community cause. This would force the retailers to stock Olmec Toys and which in turn would bring in more profitability to the company. Further, she could have taken s ome risks on her part by exhibiting a few of her prominent ethnic toys on the windows of a few New York retailers by giving the items free or with hefty discounts in order to encourage people to notice them. There is also one more factor which she could have dealt with initially and that was to export her toys to the foreign markets where the toys with actual characteristics of the African, Asian, Chinese and Japanese population would have got a better reception. Finance in exports are also can be transacted after receiving a letter of credit from the foreign importer. Usually there are lesser problems of getting finance in international trade and Olmec Toys could have sent the message through their own website. The psychological affect on children could be highlighted in this way. The focus on one's physical appearance and body as source of self worth may be imbued or strengthened by various social agents (Bosacki, 2007). The diversity among the international community can be a determining factor to sell her idea across the world and this would naturally attract interest in US markets too. Again, there is no dearth of research in US on any subject and as an experienced researcher Yla Eason could have done some kind of homework to get the message across to the parents of minority children that the ethnically correct toys would enhance the child's own image and inspire him or her later on future careers. This change in thinking could be done with due publicity and advertisement rather than try selling it to the stubborn retailers. Reference List Bosacki Sandra Leanne (2007). Children's Understanding of Emotions and Self: Are There Gender Differences? Children's Self Development. Journal of Research in Childhood Education.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
How to Get a Merit Scholarship 6-Step Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for a way to fund your college education, you should definitely check out merit scholarships. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re especially great options for high-achieving students who may not qualify for much need-based financial aid. The best part of getting a merit scholarship is, of course, that youÃ¢â¬â¢re essentially getting free money for school.But how to get a merit scholarship can still be confusing and overwhelming. In this post, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll explain what defines a merit scholarship before going into both where you can find them and how you can get them. At the end, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find a list of some of the top merit awardsavailable - this way, you can get a head start on getting that cash. What's a Merit Scholarship? Merit scholarships are financial awards that are meant to help students pay for school. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re one of the best forms of financial aid because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re free money that you never have to pay back, often with few to no strings attached. Let's answer some of themost common questions that come up aboutthese awards. How Do Scholarship Organizations Define Merit? Many merit scholarships look for students with impressive academic achievements.Others focus on community service, sports prowess, professional/business experience, leadership skills, or artistic talent. The most prestigious scholarships tend to go to students who stand out in several different areas. It's important to note that, although mostmerit scholarships are awarded primarily based on merit, many take financial need into account. Financial need qualifications (if applicable) will vary based on the scholarship. If you don't think you'll qualify for much need-based aid, you'll want to focus your energy on pure merit-based awards. Are Merit Scholarships Hard to Get? This will obviously vary based on the scholarship. In general, the bigger the award, the more serious the competition for the money. Merit-based scholarships are often difficult to get in the sense that they require dedicated, long-term, impressive performance in order to stand out as an applicant. For example, if you want to apply for a scholarship based on GPA, you will have had tomaintain a high GPA since the beginning of high school in order to be a competitive applicant. In another sense, thesescholarships may be less difficult than other awards because you might not have to do anythingÃ¢â¬Å"extraÃ¢â¬ in order to qualify (if you're already a meritorious student, that is). How to Find Merit Scholarships There are two major sources of merit scholarships: private organizations and colleges/universities themselves. The way youÃ¢â¬â¢d go about finding (and applying) for thesescholarships depends on their source. Step 1 of the scholarship app process: figuring out where all these awards are hiding Merit Scholarships Offered Through Private Organizations Some of the most well-known (and most generous) merit awardsare offered through private and nonprofit organizations. The mission of many of these organizations is to provide financial assistance to high-achieving students who also demonstrate financial need. As such, it may be tough to find pure merit-based awards from these sources. To look for merit-based awards, you might want to start with these guides to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s top scholarships. Then, you can move on to looking for less competitive local awards. You can also do your own research by Googling scholarships based on your specific interests, skills, or activities. If you're into debate, for example, you might search for "debate scholarships," "debate merit scholarships," or even "debate scholarship [specific school name]." Merit Scholarships Offered Through Schools ItÃ¢â¬â¢s often easier to find pure merit-based scholarships through schools than it is to find them through private or nonprofit organizations. Schools sometimes offer merit-based awards in order to attract competitive applicants. In order to get your hands on these merit awards, often all you have to do is apply to the school. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll automatically be considered for awards once you submit your college application. Colleges and universities often look at the following criteria when awarding merit scholarships (keep in mind that the specifics of these criteria vary widely by school): High school GPA Standardized test scores (SAT and/or ACT) Class rank SportsScholarships Talented athletes can get a ton of merit scholarship money (regardless of financial need), but the process is usually more complicated than just submitting a college app.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for merit awards based on your sports performance, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to go through the proper channels, i.e. youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to be in touch with coaches and/or be formally recruited. Your award will depend on the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s merit scholarship policies and how much they want you as an athlete.Learn more about how college recruitment works. A Small Caveat Not all schools offer merit scholarships - many top private schools, for example, only offer need-based financial aid.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking specifically for schools that offer generous merit awards that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t dependent on financial need, you should check out our guide to schools with top scholarship programsor our guide to schools that offer full-ride scholarships- just be mindful when it comes to discriminating between need-based and merit-based aid. Want to build the best possible college application and financial aid package? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. How to Geta Merit Scholarship Ready to get started seeking out your own scholarship money? Here are all thesteps you should take if you want to optimize your chances of winning a merit award. Step 1: Start Early AsI mentioned before, you have to be in it for the long haul if you hope to qualify for some of the more competitive merit awards. Many merit awards will ask for transcripts, records, ordocumentation going back to your freshman year of high school.You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be perfect - your later high school years will matter more than your freshman or even sophomore year - but you do needto demonstrate a pattern of consistent high-achievement or consistent improvement. This will be important if you hope to come across as a compelling applicant. Step 2: Choose Your Focus Even if you're a young high school student, it's prudent to start thinkingabout what sort of scholarships make the most sense for you.What kindof merit award are you most likely to qualify for? Are you gunning to be a top student, a star athlete, a community service expert, or some combination? Unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re a true stand-out performer in another space, IÃ¢â¬â¢d encourage you to focus on your academics before expending energy on other pursuits. It's relatively easy to qualify for merit-based awards at many collegesif you have a strong GPA and/or test scores. You can be a great debater or have hundreds of community service hours under your belt, but if your grades are underwhelming, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely hurt both your college admissions and scholarship chances. Merit awardsare pretty useless if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t use them at the schools you want. The more you can narrow in on a type of target scholarship, the more successful you'll be. Step 3: Be Proactive AsI mentioned earlier, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for you to consistently demonstrate that youÃ¢â¬â¢re a high-achieving student (or athlete, or volunteer) in order to be competitive for a merit award. This means youÃ¢â¬â¢re responsible for tackling any weaknesses in your performance before they become bigger problems. To be proactive, you can: See teachers and coaches for extra help on assignments or problem areas. Meet with your guidance or college counselor regularly (perhaps once a quarter) to check in about college plans, grades, career goals, etc. This may also serve you well if you need letters of rec from your counselors later forscholarship applications. Step 4: Have an ACT/SAT Prep Plan Standardized test grades are often a big part of qualifying for merit scholarships. The earlier you start laying out a plan for preparing and taking either the ACT or the SAT, the better off youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be. To start formulating a plan, check out these guides: Should you take the ACT or the SAT? How long should you study for the ACT or theSAT? ACT/SAT test dates and study plans How to get a perfect score on the ACT or the SAT Step 5: Find "Good Fit" Scholarships Not all of the scholarships that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be interested in will necessarily be good fits, even if you technically meet all of the eligibility criteria. Applying to scholarships wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be the only thing on your mind when you're putting together these apps, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to use your time efficiently when selecting scholarships. You could technically submit an infinite number of apps, but youÃ¢â¬â¢d likely be wasting your time. You don't want to just apply for one or two awards - applying to scholarships is still a numbers game - so aim for 8-10 applications. Think of it like you think of applying to colleges: select a few Ã¢â¬Å"reach,Ã¢â¬ a few Ã¢â¬Å"safety,Ã¢â¬ and a few Ã¢â¬Å"targetÃ¢â¬ scholarships.Use your strengths(e.g. academics, sports, community service) to select scholarships for fit (and eliminate scholarships that aren't worth your time). For example, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re top of your class but only played JV-level sports, you might not be the best applicant for a scholar-athlete award. If a scholarship isn't a natural fit, you'll likely be wasting your time. Step 6: Submit Polished Applications Just like with your college applications, you only have one chance to make a good impression when you apply for merit scholarships (especially when it comes to themost competitive awards, where scholarship committees have to process thousands of apps). If possible, start putting together a tentative list of scholarships as early as your freshman year. This may seem a little too proactive, but keep in mind that many of the top scholarships are due late junior-early senior year. This early research will also help you stay on track to meet eligibility qualifications. Start seriously thinking about your apps about four months before their due dates. This gives you time to ask forletters of recommendation(if applicable). It also gives you a chance to get feedback on drafts of essays. Finally, have 2-3 trusted people look over your apps before submission to check for clarity, typos, or missing information.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t wait until the actual deadline to submit your application - you never know when you might run into technical issues that could prevent submission. It's best to schedule submission 3-5 days before theofficial due date. What Are the Top Merit Scholarships? If you're eager tobegin researchingmerit awards, the following scholarshipsare a good place to start. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll find a list of some of the biggest pure merit scholarships, in addition to a list of merit + financial need-based scholarships. For more comprehensive lists of top scholarship programs, check out our guides to the best scholarships available for high school juniors and seniors. Pure Merit Awards National Merit Scholarship Coca-Cola Scholarship Ronald McDonald Scholarships Merit + Financial Need Awards Gates Millennium Horatio Alger Scholarship Program Jackie RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Foundation Scholarship Program Engebretson Foundation Scholarship Jack Kent Cook Foundation College Scholarship Program Elks National Foundation Most Valuable Student Competition What's Next? One of the hardest parts of searching for scholarships is that there isn't one centralized, reliable source of information on available awards. To help make the search a bit easier, we've put together several guides on various types of award programs. If you're interested in other merit-based awards, read about guaranteed scholarships based on ACT/SAT scores. Looking for scholarship apps that won't interfere with school or extracurriculars? Check out our guide to the 12 easiest scholarship applications. Finally, if looming college bills are getting to be a bit overwhelming, read more about how to get a full ride scholarship and how to apply for financial aid. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Atomic Number 8 Element Facts Oxygen, element symbol O, is the element that is atomic number 8 on the periodic table. This means every atom of oxygen has 8 protons. Varying the number of electrons forms ions, while altering the number of neutrons makes different isotopes of the element, but the number of protons remains constant. Here is a collection of interesting facts about atomic number 8. Atomic Number 8 Element Facts While oxygen is a colorless gas under ordinary conditions, element 8 is actually quite colorful! Liquid oxygen is blue, while the solid element may be blue, pink, orange, red, black, or even metallic.Oxygen is a nonmetal belonging to the chalcogen group. It is highly reactive and readily forms compounds with other elements. It is found as a pure element in nature as oxygen gas (O2) and ozone (O3). Tetraoxygen (O4) was discovered in 2001. Tetraoxygen is an even more potent oxidizer than dioxygen or trioxygen.Excited oxygen atoms produce the green and red colors of the aurora. Although air consists mainly of nitrogen, atomic number 8 is responsible for most of the colors that we see.Today, oxygen makes up about 21% of the Earths atmosphere. However, air was not always so highly oxygenated! A 2007 NASA-funded study determined oxygen has been present in air for about 2.3 billion to 2.4 billion years, with levels starting to rise 2.5 billion years ago. Photosynthetic organisms, such as pl ants and algae, are responsible for maintaining the high oxygen levels necessary for life. Without photosynthesis, oxygen levels in the atmosphere would fall. Although hydrogen atoms are the most numerous type of atom in the human body, oxygen accounts for about two-thirds of the mass of most living organisms, mainly because cells contain a lot of water. 88.9% of the weight of water comes from oxygen.Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, and British scientists and clergyman Joseph Priestly researched and discovered oxygen between 1770 and 1780. Lavoisier first called element number 8 by the name oxygen in 1777.Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe. The element is made by stars around 5x more massive than the Sun when they reach the point where they burn carbon or a combination of helium in carbon in fusion reactions. Over time, the abundance of oxygen in the universe will increase.Until 1961, atomic number 8 was the standard for the atomic weight of the chemical elements. In 1961, the standard was switched over to carbon-12.Its a common misconception that hyperventilation is caused by breathing in too much oxygen. Actually, hyperventilating is caused by exhaling too much carbon dioxide. Although carbon dioxide can be toxic at high levels, its needed in the blood to prevent it from becoming too alkaline. Breathing too quickly causes blood pH to rise, which constricts blood vessels in the brain, leading to headache, slurred speech, dizziness, and other symptoms. Oxygen has many uses. It is used for oxygen therapy and life support systems. It is a common oxidizer and propellant for rockets, welding, cutting, and brazing. Oxygen is used in internal combustion engines. Ozone functions as a natural planetary radiation shield.Pure oxygen is not, in fact, flammable. It is an oxidizer, supporting combustion of flammable materials.Oxygen is paramagnetic. In order words, oxygen is only weakly attracted to a magnet and does not maintain permanent magnetism.Cold water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warm water. The polar oceans contain more dissolved oxygen than equatorial or mid-latitude oceans. Essential Element 8 Information Element Symbol: O State of Matter at Room Temperature: Gas Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Isotopes: At least 11 isotopes of oxygen exist. 3 are stable. Most Common Isotope: Oxygen-16 (accounts for 99.757% of the natural abundance) Melting Point: -218.79 Ã °C Boiling Point: -182.95 Ã °C Triple Point:Ã 54.361Ã K, Ã¢â¬â¹0.1463Ã kPa Oxidation States: 2, 1, -1, 2 Electronegativity: 3.44 (Pauling scale) Ionization Energies: 1st:Ã 1313.9Ã kJ/mol, 2nd:Ã 3388.3Ã kJ/mol, 3rd:Ã 5300.5Ã kJ/mol Covalent Radius: 66 /- 2 pm Van der Waals Radius: 152 pm Crystal Structure: Cubic Magnetic Ordering: Paramagnetic Discovery: Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1771) Named By: Antoine Lavoisier (1777) Further Reading Cacace, Fulvio; de Petris, Giulia; Troiani, Anna (2001). Experimental Detection of Tetraoxygen. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 40 (21): 4062Ã¢â¬â65.Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.Weast, Robert (1984).Ã CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Women and careers - Essay Example Literature does not only show their differences in ideologies but it also reflects the similarities of such ideas among men and women in the past and present times. Today, the interest in the subject is becoming more and more intense as people seek to pursue all the happiness they can have in this world. One movie series that speaks about such especially concerning women is Ã¢â¬Å"Sex and the CityÃ¢â¬ . It portrays the lives of four female friends who openly talk about sex and their relationship. It presents the concerns of women that men often ignore and disregard. Moreover, it also pictures how modern women value work and their womanhood in the pursuit of their happiness. The main characters, Carrie Bradshaw played by Jessica Parker, Kim Cattrall as Samantha Jones, Kristin Davies as Charlotte York and Cynthia Nixon as Miranda Hobbes, in the movie series mentioned earlier perhaps reflects the modern womenÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles that they often experience as they express themselves and assert their worth in the world. The four women who are all past the age of thirty try to live normal lives as all the others around them do. They work as professionals and compete with men in their work places but they also struggle with them when it comes to their relationships. They have different ideas about love and sex which portrays the different ideas of modern women. For instance, Miranda is presented as a successful corporate lawyer who worked so hard that she has forgotten all about marriage. In her mid-thirty, she was still unmarried. Jones on the other hand is an executive who tries to act like men do, having sex with them like the relationship is not about feelings and emotions or treating each other as lovers. In the first episode of season 1, the character of Jones is presented as the most liberated among the four friends and perhaps reflects many women in modern times who really think that they are competitive with men not only in terms of profession and achievemen ts but also in terms of sex. If men perceive women as sex objects, she believes that women could also do the same as evidenced by her advice to her friends. She even gives an example about how she goes about her relationships, mentioning Drew, an ex-lover whom she slept with for a time in her past and then left him matter-of-factly, forgetting about him just like when one changes her clothes and disposes them (youtube.com). On the other hand, York plays the romantic kind of character who thinks that sex should be expressed with love. She is quite the emotional kind among the friends and often brings about the other concerns, about the more important matters in the issues being raised among their discussions. In the example given above, she reacts with Bradshaw in clear bewilderment saying that they should consider love and romance also. Perhaps the attitude of women acting like men, thinking that they can be as unemotional when it comes to sex is just a facade to show their competit iveness. Although deep inside, women are hurting because they are treated like objects, they tend not to accept it but rather deny that they are really emotionally affected. In effect, they try to act as the men do and show that they can also hurt men. However, along the process, men are also hurt because they are also human beings who have feelings. Bradshaw verbally expressed her being a human being and asserted that she should be treated as such by her lovers like her long time lover, Big and still another lover, Alexander Petrovsky (youtube.com). Although men never show such concern or verbally express such feelings, they are not devoid of feelings so that they also need such attention. However, probably, what makes things
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Corn-based Ethanol Production - Thesis Example Theoretical framework The study is conducted in the theoretical premise of macroeconomics among other sub-theoretical domains of significant proximity to the objectives and focus concept of this study. . The premise provides the theoretical components that illuminate an understanding of how economic and macroeconomic policies and factors affect the fuel, food production and distribution dynamics. The theoretical framework also presents macroeconomics analysis and inference tools that will help in the establishment of the 'real world' effects of the production of corn-based ethanol on the price of corn. Definitions of Terms Ethanol Ethanol; is also called ethyl alcohol or pure alcohol is a flammable and colorless liquid which is categorised as a psychoactive drug. In common organic chemistry notation ethanol is abbreviated as EtOh. Hayashi, Fumio (2007) states that ethanol is a pure-chain alcohol with molecular formula C2H5OH. Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol which constitutes the same kind of alcohol that is contained in alcoholic beverages. Ethanol can be used as fuel biofuel like gasoline. This kind can be produced from common crops such as corn and sugar cane. Ethanol is a growing source of renewable energy alterative to gasoline. Biofuels Biofuel is a term used to refer to solid, liquid or gas fuel that has been produced from biological or organic material. The kind is differentiated from the fossils fuels which are drawn from long metamorphosed biological material. "From a theoretical perspective Biofuels can be made from any biological carbon source" (Hayashi, Fumio 2007). The commonly used sources of biofuels nonetheless are photosynthetic plants. Commodity Markets Commodity... This research exercise is not being conducted in a vacuum. The research exercise fits into a broad body of knowledge which has had numerous contributions from various scholars, researchers, professionals and students who have carried similar or related research exercises. Also; the scope and objectives of this research endeavor occur within related and implied theoretical, ideological and philosophical frameworks which largely influence the disciplines of business. As such the researcher is spurred to consider the multiple contributions relevant and related to this research endeavor. The researcher will present a literature review conducted in locating the object of this study within the broader confines of the bodies of knowledge in focus. The thrust at accomplishing set goals in pursuing the Ã¢â¬â¢green worldÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy and theory much based on the need to curtail the towering global climate upheavals has seen the emphasises shift in policy in various industry and agriculture fronts. President George W. Bush has had the production of corn-based ethanol as part of the core of his energy policy. This has brought in some merits and demerits. The resonating concern is that is that the emphasis on corn based ethanol production has adverse impact on the entirety of the national and international agriculture sector. More so the thrust on the production of corn-based ethanol has been the part of the root causes of the escalating food prices.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Justification of Humanities Essay The humanities have been studied since ancient Grecian times as an academic discipline, examining human condition and including the arts, literature, philosophy, history and some social sciences. In 2008, nationally recognized and respected literary theorist Stanley Fish wrote a New York Times article in response to a New York State Commission on Higher Education report in which people posted complaints that the humanities are always the last to be financially funded. Fish sums up his argument with an insulting conclusive statement: Ã¢â¬Å"To the question Ã¢â¬Ëof what use are humanities? Ã¢â¬â¢, the only honest answer is none whatsoeverÃ¢â¬ . He backs up this claim by pointing out the lack of tangible evidence that is produced by humanities compared to science and other fields. I assert that Fish underestimates the power of the intangible benefits that the humanities have to offer. His overall argument against the value of humanities presents a point-of-view that is extreme, reductive, and insulting to anyone associated with the humanities and the study of them. An education involving the study of humanities enables readers with skills that are applicable in understanding and comprehending contemporary media and literature. Literature, for that matter, effects people morally and possibly behaviorally and that effect, positive or negative, is Ã¢â¬Ëof useÃ¢â¬â¢. Narrative literature and historical texts also allow readers to build a bridge and connect with the past and its people. The media has become an inevitable part of our society today and, unfortunately, media manipulation has as well. Public relations companies and the government have hidden agendas that the journalists blindly incorporate into their stories and columns. People are paid to make the American public perceive pictures and articles in a deceitful, false way in order to sell a war or downplay a disaster. In 1996 John Rendon, the founder of The Rendon Group, a public relations firm, admitted to U. S. Air Force cadets that the Gulf War in Iraq had been a big project for his company. He even talked about generating deceiving photographs! Looking back in history through other conflicts (i. e. , Vietnam, Iraq), or political issues or even stories of famous individuals, we can observe many situations similar to what Rendon explained that supports a recurring complaint in our culture, whether provable or not, that the press will print stories without evidence if they make more money in the process. Specifically, the media coverage after the 911 attacks were constant and focused on Osama bin Laden as the mastermind behind the attacks and on Iraq having Ã¢â¬Ëweapons of mass destructionÃ¢â¬â¢ as they were told by authorities. Pro-war sources were disproportionately focused on over anti-war sources which helped build misguided public support for our war on terrorism and on Iraq. But we now know WMDs were not in existence there, but this shows the power of media stories, no matter whether based on fact, and its ability to influence society and the power it can take away from us by eliminating fully-informed decision-making. By being exposed to manipulating and deceiving narrators such as LolitaÃ¢â¬â¢s Humbert Humbert and Holden Caulfield in The Catcher In the Rye, students gain experience in detecting this fraudulence or bias. Also, through involvement with this type of reading and writing, the ability to sense when they are being propagandized or manipulated. An education that includes humanities provides tools for people to consciously keep from falling for the bias and hidden slander that is involved, especially with politics. This awareness can cause better decision-making (voting especially) and affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion very greatly. Exposure to humanities can cause people to be less egocentric and can arm them with a point-of-view that will help them see through narrow-minded opinions and statements, like FishÃ¢â¬â¢s, and develop their own sound, fact-based and well-rounded opinions. Fish also comments in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"What do they [humanities] do? They donÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything, if by Ã¢â¬ËdoÃ¢â¬â¢ is meant bring about effects in the worldÃ¢â¬ . This claim is resting upon the questionable understanding that the Ã¢â¬ËdoÃ¢â¬â¢ is supposed to yield a tangible product, a constant misconception Fish seems to have. I am arguing that an effect on a person, positive or negative, implies that something was Ã¢â¬ËdoneÃ¢â¬â¢ to have caused that effect. Fish himself names many examples of literature affecting its readers; he just chooses to discard them and remain skeptical. Countless examples have affected millions of people. Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Silent Spring is commonly credited for the launch of the environmental awareness movement. The Bible itself is a form of literature, and I am sure that Stanley Fish cannot argue that The Bible has not affected the world! Dr. Seuss books affect children and adults all over the world with their simple yet effective messages through the creative rhyming. The Food and Drug Administration was founded as a latter result to SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢s The Jungle, and I believe that this would be considered an example of Ã¢â¬ËdoingÃ¢â¬â¢ something, even according to Fish. Books, and all forms of art, can cause people to reflect on the plot, the characters, or the ethical questions being pondered in the story. We can contemplate character attributes we appreciate or reject and watch scenarios unfold in books that can be comparable to situations in our own lives. Fish believes Ã¢â¬Å"it is not the business of the humanities to save usÃ¢â¬ , but I do believe an education in humanities can help us save us from the Ã¢â¬Å"worst of ourselvesÃ¢â¬ by helping us become more well-rounded citizens with an understanding of the past so we can head effectively and productively into the future. I agree with Kronman who Fish quotes as saying Ã¢â¬Å"a college was above all a place for the training of characterÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . This completely supports an intelligent quote by Martin Luther King Jr. King said, Ã¢â¬Å"Intelligence plus characterÃ¢â¬âthat is the true goal of education. Ã¢â¬ Without any humanities incorporated in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s education, can this goal be fully achieved? The renowned Spanish-American essayist George Santayana said, Ã¢â¬Å"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat itÃ¢â¬ , and I cannot agree more with this claim. It highlights the importance of an education in history, another branch of the humanities discipline. Having a connection and understanding with the past allows us to gain appreciation for the world today and learn from the mistakes made through history, so those mistakes are not repeated. For example, the very foundation of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s government was created through utilizing documentations of various governments implemented through history! The founding fathers sifted through accounts of different governments and how successful they were and used them to form the Constitution. For example, they applied the system of checks and balances in order balance power among the braches and stray from the way that BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s monarchy was established. Books and the arts used to be manÃ¢â¬â¢s sole form of entertainment and it is amazing to read the thoughts and see the creations of a person from so long ago! Narrative literature, especially from the past, allows us to delve into the mindset of someone from a different time, and that is something that no history book can teach. The readings assigned in humanities classes expand studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of life and ethics from a different time period and examines why this ethical mindset existed in the historical context. We reflect and compare the morals of those in the past to our own, making connections with the past yet also seeing the development of ethics and moral behavior through time. Teachings in humanities can be directly applied to the commercial culture that is present in our society today, especially with the deceitful and biased influences in the media. Literature has direct effects on us on an emotional, ethical and logical level and the connection that is made through books with the past is undoubtedly one of the most helpful insights of the past. FishÃ¢â¬â¢s argument was immature and was based merely on tangible products, a close-minded viewpoint that overlooks the power of thought and the mind! My contrasting opinion defends the impalpable and in that sense, suggests humanities can contribute to improving a reader personally and potentially benefit the future of society greatly.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Fidel Castro Ruz was born on August 13, 1926 (some sources give 1927), on his family's sugar plantation near Biran, Oriente, Province. His father was an immigrant from Galcia, Spain. He attended good Catholic schools in Santiago de Cuba and Havana, where he took the sparten regime at a Jesuit boarding school, Colegio de Belen. In 1945 he enrolled at the University of Havana, graduating in 1950 with a law degree. In 1948, he married Mirta Diaz-Balart and divorced her in 1954. Their son, Fidel Castro Ruz Diaz-Balart, born in 1949, has served as head of Cuba's atomic energy commission. Fidel Castro Ruz, Cuba's enduring "maximum leader," has held power since 1959. He is president (since 1976; formerly prime minister), first secretary of the Cuban Communist party, and commander of the armed forces. His decisions are final on matters of domestic and foreign policy. A member of the social-democratic Orthodoxo party in the late 1940s and 1950s, Castro was an early and vocal opponent of the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. In 1952, he ran for election to the Cuban House of Representatives. But troops led by Batista halted the election and ended democracy in Cuba. As a result of Batista's actions, Castro tried to start a revolution against the Batista dictatorship. He eventually succeeded on January 1, 1959 and took control of the Cuban govenment. Castro, who has no rivals for power, demands the absolute loyalty of those around him. As a lawyer by training, Castro led the Cuban Revolution and transformed the island into the first Communist state in the Western Hemisphere. He has been less than successful as an economic policymaker: Cuba remains a poor country in debt whose livelihood depended on sugar production and Soviet economic aid -- which was cut off after the demise of the Soviet Union.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Journalist John Markoff wrote the article Ã¢â¬Å"Computer Wins On Ã¢â¬ËJeopardy!Ã¢â¬â¢: Trivial, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s NotÃ¢â¬ . He discusses how the super computer Ã¢â¬Å"WatsonÃ¢â¬ defeated the all time champion of Ã¢â¬Å"Jeopardy!Ã¢â¬ Ken Jennings. The author, throughout the article, agrees that the supercomputer Ã¢â¬Å"WatsonÃ¢â¬ was a fair match against Ken Jennings. I disagree with Markoff for multiple reasons. This was in no way a fair match because the computer had a remarkable ability to answer questions at super speeds. Also, the computer has access to all available questions and the ability to answer them. This was in no way a fair battle between the computer and Ken Jennings. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main idea of this article is mainly to say how the supercomputer was a fair match between the two. The computer has ways to answer questions that humans have no way of doing. The computer can answer questions within seconds and even milliseconds when the question is asked. It has a super speed ability to answer these questions, which gives no time for the competitor to even have a chance to answer the questions given. So, when the competitor has no time to even have an attempt to answer the question, there is no way to win. Ã¢â¬Å"WatsonÃ¢â¬ is so smart that almost every question that is asked, he answers correctly. Since I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with MarkoffÃ¢â¬â¢s statement about Ã¢â¬Å"WatsonÃ¢â¬ , I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think his argument is valid. The reason I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe his argument and points are valid is that a computer that has remarkable and inhuman-like abilities is obviously going to win in a competition of speed and knowledge. Ken Jennings had no chance against this computer. So, if a human has no chance against a machine, how can anyone call this a fair fight? Now, Markoff did define his terms clearly and specifically describe his reasons for why he thinks what he thinks, so I do give him credit for that. Still, I disagree with his argument. I disagree with most of MarkoffÃ¢â¬â¢s view about the competition between the computer and Jennings. His main point of the fair competition is totally undebatable. Ã¢â¬Å"Watson, on the other hand, does not anticipate the light, but has a weighted scheme that allows it, when it is highly confident, to hitÃ the buzzer in as little as 10 milliseconds, making it hard for humans to beatÃ¢â¬ (Markoff 212). This statement made by Markoff proves that this was in no way possible for Jennings to beat the super computer. The computer can buzz in at amazing speeds as little as 10 milliseconds, which is way faster than any other human could possibly buzz in. Plus, the computer is programmed with so much information, that it would most likely be able to defeat Jennings, just because of the intelligence of this machine that the creators programmed into it. Overall, I do not believe that this piece published by John Markoff is in anyway valid. Markoff does however succeed in persuading people his ideas and describing his ideas and arguments very specifically. He does a good job with his argument and stating what he thinks. I do not agree with his argument though. My reaction to this piece is actually astonished because I am not sure how anyone could think that a computer competing against a very intelligent human was fair at all. The weakness of this passage is probably how it can be hard for someone to understand how a computer can manage to accomplish all this, but the strengths are good description and expression of the passage. Although he argues very well of his points, I in no way agree with his argument that the battle between Ã¢â¬Å"WatsonÃ¢â¬ and Ken Jennings was fair.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God by Gordon Fee lays out a prescription for true spiritual success to cure what ails churches of all kinds. The main treatment is the Holy Spirit-led life. FeeÃ¢â¬â¢s major work Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Empowering PresenceÃ¢â¬ is foundational in the area of Pauline pneumatology. This book successfully condenses the heavy exegesis of the larger work into an easily readable text. Fee has a lot of poignant and challenging things to say concerning modern-day evangelicalismÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the Holy Spirit. The difference between Christians today and Paul is staggering. The same spirit that lives in Paul and Jesus is the same spirit that is in Christians today. The western culture of Christians in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world live in very similar environment that the early Greco-Roman Western environment of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s day. Disconnection has occurred because as Fee states Ã¢â¬Å"is in the large part to their experience of the reality of the SpiritÃ¢â¬â¢s presence.Ã¢â¬ This presents a very concerning issue with the church today who sometimes take the either/or approach to the Spirit between the gifts and the fruit of Spirit. The Spirit was an empowering force to Christian in the early church era. This power was not limited to signs and wonders, healings, or tongues but it was to empower the whole life of a Christian to grasp the beauty of being made in the image of God. The Spirit of God was the fulfillment of all the Jewish prophesies on how God would return His Presence to mankind again. The Trinitarian views became grounded because of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s revelation on the very real true nature of God. The triune nature of God as one shows the vital importance that God is a relational being. He desires relationships and He has sent His Spirit for the church to be unified as one bride. Even though individual people experience salvation and become children of God, the goal is not a set of individuals for heaven but to create one people that lived a life of heaven in this day and age. A people for His name and glory. Just as important as Christians experiencing the Spirit of God is the understanding of the Ã¢â¬Å"already/not yetÃ¢â¬ aspect of heaven. The future of heaven has begun by the outpouring of His spirit and it guarantees a future consummation of a new heaven and earth. The Spirit is the key in worship for the people of God, as it gifts people with different diverse gifts might build up the church to live in this state of already/not there yet heaven on earth until the final coming of God. Throughout todays western culture the thought of God and spirituality are separate entities to everyday life. To be spiritual means to read the Bible, listen to worship music, or pray. These ideas are reinforced by the pastors every Sunday and as well as during the weekly menÃ¢â¬â¢s, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s, teen, and children ministry times. After church services Christians go about their life and try to spread the gospel of Jesus because if people believe in God they donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to hell. The Spirit of God is a powerful force that is used to speak in tongues, prophesy, and heal people. Westernized Christians see the Spirit as a powerful unreliable tool. The problem with the way this Western mindset is we interpret and see the scripture that Paul speaks of with a tainted eye. Paul sees the Spirit as Gods fulfillment of promise to His people, the people that He adores, and gave His sons life for. The fulfillment to this promise is that Gods presence would once again be among His people but if they accepted Him, He would indwell them and bring them to life! Paul never writes about what Christians should do as a doctrine but he instead is describing a process in how to connect with God. When Paul describes in 2 Corinthians chapter four about him encountering the Spirit of God. Not only is he beholding the Glory of God but he is being transformed into Gods likeness. This love that rushes like a mighty stream to his heart causes him to cry out daddy because of his adoration to God. The children of God are designed to be in a vulnerable relationship with God. They are designed to hear His voice and understand that He is not an impersonal being. The only way is through experience. The western mindset makes it tough to swallow some of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s revelations about life. Especially about the how everyone is part of one body. In a culture that is all about personal achievement and looking out for ones-self, people get trapped in this self-absorbed mentality that has poisoned the church. This imagery that Paul presents to all believers are part of one body. This shows that the spirit brings all people who are children of God together in unity. God is about unity in relationships and according to Paul it is the Spirit that draws us into unity as one body. The amazing part is that the sins that grieve the Holy Spirit are the sins of discord of one another. The Holy Spirit wants the relationships of people to be so vibrant and alive! The denominational churches of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s age grieve the Holy Spirit. The discourses of beliefs have caused the body of Christ to be ripped apart. Paul does not see Jew or Gentile when he sees people but he sees sons and daughters of God. The church might not see that truth about who they are but through the revelation of the Spirit, he grasps who people really are. As children of God being in Christ through the Spirit all a part of one body. The church must begin to realize and grasp the revelation of the work that the Spirit is doing and not quench it. Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God by Gordon Fee gives the readers a glimpse into the revelation of Paul in the New Testament. Revelation only comes by experiencing the Spirit of God. A remarkable book on how children of God can live in the here/not yet concept of Heaven on earth. Fee will challenge the way the readers view and interact with God and others in order for heaven to be brought down more in every life.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Analysis of Shrek 2 essays A fairy tale is a story, either intended for children or narrated to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters. Nearly all fairy tales have magic and supernatural characters. They have good versus evil; a villain versus a hero and in the end the good always triumphs.Sometimes fairy tales are simply miraculous entertainment but often, fairy tales are disguised morality tales. Fairy tales appeal to children perhaps because of the magical element and children therefore, enjoy watching and listening to them. Younger children are affected by what happens and if they like a character they expect them to win. All fairy tales are made especially for young children and they exclude swearing or any disturbing scenes. This is what the audience would expect from a fairy tale. The Shrek story begins when a fairy tale book opens. The opening sentence of the story is Once upon a time. The music is quiet and classical and suits a fairy tale. The books pages turn until the last page where it closes with and they lived happily ever after. This is exactly what an audience would expect of a fairytale. While the audience are enjoying this quiet moment, the page is ripped unexpectedly and the toilet is flushed, followed by rock music. The scene is changed completely and it erases the fairy tale beginning. Obviously this crushes the audiences expectations for the opening. In the story, Shrek is a big ugly ogre who is hated by everyone and lives alone. In addition he has his own swamp. He seems to be everything you would expect of a fairytale ogre. Shrek lives at the out skirts of the city where there arent many people passing by. He eats what no one else wants to and seems to relish. Donkey takes the role of a noble steed, however he is not a magnificent stallion , but a short, rather quirky looking donkey. He is Shreks friend who gets to know him by accident. Shrek didnt want t...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How to answer Where do you see yourselfÃ in 5 yearsÃ ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a question that seems to pop up all the time, and you can count on hearing it from inquiring bosses, curious colleagues, friends and family members, and perhaps most often- and most importantly- on job interviews. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËWhere do you see yourself in five years?Ã¢â¬ How you answer this can say plenty about you. Want to learn how to best handle this question if youÃ¢â¬â¢re ever confronted with it and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot depending on your answer, like possibly getting a new job? Typically, this question arises on interviews in an effort to gauge your long-term career aspirations, as well as your ability to be self-reflective and think quickly on your feet. If you were faced with this question, would you be able to competently answer it in a way that would reflect positively on you? You certainly should be, because your answer may reveal a lot about you to the hiring personnel who are evaluating you as a potential candidate.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re starting to ge t anxious about whether or not your ability to answer this question effectively passes muster, donÃ¢â¬â¢t be- there are several strategies you can take advantage of in order to handle it well and improve your position during interviews. The Balance published an articleÃ that covers some helpful strategies for letting the world know where you see yourself in 5 years. Make the most of the advice presented here to knock this question out of the park when it comes your way.Be honestThe first thing to do when confronted with this question is to take a deep breath and relax. Why? Because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a trick question and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not designed to be. You shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel pressured into making up a fantastical answer that demonstrates a desire to be on some unrealistic career trajectory. At its core, of your answer should reflect an honest but carefully considered and logical look at how youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to see your professional goals expand and evolve over time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s ok to reflect a level of ambition; in fact, your answer should show a desire for growth- no one fully respects a stagnant mindset. Just make sure that your answer shows a deep understanding of the industry youÃ¢â¬â¢re pursuing, reflects a level of growth that someone can reasonably hope to achieve in 5 years (going from the mailroom to the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s desk may not be the best response, even if itÃ¢â¬â¢s what youÃ¢â¬â¢re aiming for), and includes a plan for making it all happen if pressed to elaborate.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t hop over the position in front of youYes, you want your answer to this question to highlight the fact that your ambitious and hope to achieve professional growth over the next 5 years, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want your answer to make it seem as if the current job in front of you is merely a brief stepping stone that you hope to leapfrog past quickly. Make sure your answer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come across that way.Mind your body languageAlways be sure that your delivery is ju st as strong as the content of your answer, because your audience will certainly be paying attention. Be sure to answer confidently and succinctly with impeccable body language and focus, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be doing you and your well-thought-out answer a real service.Highlight your giftsWhenever thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a good opportunity to highlight your skill set and abilities on a job interview you should take it- it really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt to remind an interviewer what makes you a great candidate who potentially stands out from the crowd of applicants. So make sure that you back up your 5-year plan with reasons how and why your talents will help make it all possible.A few good answersUptowork published an article that highlights several well-crafted answers to the question Ã¢â¬Å"Where do you see yourself in 5 years?Ã¢â¬ Consider adapting these sample responses to fit your situation and goals.Ã¢â¬Å"In five years, I want to complete the internal training program for my position. IÃ¢ â¬â¢ve read about it on your website, and I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a fabulous program. Not only would I get all the training for my role, but I would be on the fast track to becoming a project manager. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s my top career goal. Plus, my ideal path would include working abroad for a couple of years. I understand that itÃ¢â¬â¢s of value to you to find people prepared to do so.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"One of the reasons I want to work for PG is because I find your personalized approach to training attractive. IÃ¢â¬â¢m excited about the opportunity to work with a mentor and immerse myself in learning new skills. IÃ¢â¬â¢m also the type of employee that likes to hit the ground running and jump into projects as soon as possible. So, over the next five years, I see myself taking on as many complex assignments as the position would allow. By the end of that period, I want to say that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve built lasting client relationships. I want to say that IÃ¢â¬â¢m one of the best Salespeople on the team. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind becoming someone who could train and mentor others when the time comes as well.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As a marketing professional, I want to develop my skill set. At the end of the next five years, I want to know how to use software like Photoshop or InDesign. I want to have a better understanding of social media and video marketing. Plus IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to get into project management. I would like to learn on the job. Regardless, I want to look into online or evening courses. My hope is that I can apply my new skills to my job with you.Ã¢â¬ ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no need to get nervous at the thought of having to tackle the (almost inevitable) question Ã¢â¬Å"Where do you see yourself in 5 years?Ã¢â¬ on interviews and other high-stakes situations. Use the strategies and advice presented here to put your best foot forward when answering this classic question. Good luck!Source: [zety.com]
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Conducting Conversations in English - Essay Example These expressions may also include tone variation. Hence people do not just speak in English; rather, they may use these facial antics. Daniel Allington points out that there is an emphasis in use of institutional, social, physical, interpersonal and cultural context when people are talking. Through this, there is an effect on how one interprets the meaning of the interaction. Interactive talks reveal how language in use every day reflects as well as influencing identities and relationships of the user. These factors lead to many actions that involve the use of English language all over the world. For people to control and organise their language flow, there is the use of poetic and rhetorical features when speak. This ensures that there is the infusion of human communication. In speech and writing, there are sounds and marks that make the words recognisable. Speech experiencing in regard to old people includes face to face expressions as well as screens, telephone, books and screens . In regard to the preservation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own self during a conversation there is consideration of the facial expressions in use including gestures. This may also include tone variation, which is, a vital aspect in ensuring that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s tone maintains it originality. ... P.23-27). In the context of language use, the term appropriateness indicates the necessity of the language when conversing. For one to ensure that there is the appropriateness in the language, one should consider the people who they are conversing with, the situation that leads to the conversation as well as the media of conversation. Appropriateness is different from correctness because the former indicates how able is it to use a certain language, while the later indicates whether the language in use is acceptable. In the use of English, there is creativity each day. There is creativity and play in the use of English while speaking and writing. Through the use of these phenomenaÃ¢â¬â¢s, there is persuasion to an audience in making a point and in the conceding of a point. In human communication, there is the infusion of rhetorical and poetic characteristics. This is in reference to the conversation between Yael, Etham and Nahla where they use persuasion. This is when Yael asks Eth an, Ã¢â¬Å"What are doing.Ã¢â¬ This ensures there is creativity in conversing in English (Matthews, 2010, p. 34-36). In making an English conversation, there is consideration of digital English and material English, as the technology advances, the wording changes. In making a conversation, there should be an opening and a closing statement to ensure that the conversation has no fragments. Through it, there is a distinction between the linguistics utterances and the action of uttering it. The utterances help perform many social functions. Most opening and closing utterances are effective in a telephone conversation where the subjects use English language to converse. For an
Friday, November 1, 2019
Design and planning of commercial and domestic buildings in the UK - Essay Example Precisely this report examines the designing and planning of commercial and domestic buildings in the UK. The UK has set aggressive national goals in the building industry meant to increase efficiency and safety of buildings. It has identified emission reduction targets for 2020 and 2050 to be 34 percent and at least 80 percent in that order (Willars 2011, p. 1). To ensure that buildings are playing their role in achieving these targets, regulations have been put in place to ensure that designing and planning is undertaken in a manner that will make buildings environmental friendly. DESIGNING AND PLANNING OF BUILDINGS IN THE UK Designing and planning of buildings take place in different phases. In all these phases there are procedures which ought to be followed. Basically as shown in the diagram below designing and planning of building projects is undertaken in four stages: prepare, design, construct and use. Table 1 (Different standards for planning and designing in the UK) It is ad visable that these phases are followed so that the construction work is completed to the set standards. Failure to follow regulations set is a violation of the law and is punishable. Importantly, such negligence will likely cost the public in one way or another. Building regulations are categorized into 14 sub-categories: Part A - structural safety Part B - fire safety Part C - site preparation Part D - toxic substances Part E - sound insulation Part F - ventilation Part G - hygiene Part H - drainage and waste disposal Part I - combustion appliances Part J - protection from falling and impact Part K - energy efficiency Part L - access to and use of land Part M - glazing Part N - electrical safety This report will utilize the RIBA Plan of Work 2007 in discussing the designing and planning of commercial and domestic building in the UK. The RIBA Plan of Work is chosen because it will enable the achievement of the objective of the report in the best manner possible since it has been the Ã¢â¬Å"definitive UK model for the building design and construction process since 1963Ã¢â¬ (RIBA 2013, para. 2). RIBA Plan of Work 2013 is due to be released mid this year therefore the 2007 is appropriate for this report. However, much care is taken to integrate the ideas from Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), OGC Gateways (Scottish Government 2013), PFI procurement stages and National Audit Office Framework where necessary. The RIBA Plan of Work 2007 is divided into five phases with a total of eleven sections. The five phases are: preparation (A & B), design (C, D & E), pre-construction (F, G & H), construction (J & K) and use (L) (RIBA 2007, p. 1). The following sections examine each of these phases in great details, pointing out the technicalities involved and the expectations. Care is taken to ensure that each section addresses the requirements of domestic and commercial buildings as per the UK regulations. PREPARATION PHASE Under the prepare pha se, as categorized by CABE, the activities which cut across the board for RIBA plan of works, OGC Gateways and National Audit Office Framework are basically those involving getting ready to start off the project. They can basically be said to be feasibility tests to find out if the project can be completed. According to CABE (2011), a client needs to be very much engaged in running a building project especially in the very initial stages. It is important that the procurement process is understood well by the client. CABE has gone ahead to outline the skills that
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
FUNDAMENTALS OF INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS - Essay Example y the company used to market for the age group 6-12 but later on since 2003 they began evolving products for the teenagers as well as young customers in their twenties. The company had its original marketing plan for the kids where they used to concentrate on fairy tale themes with mermaids, oceans and the sea colours making up for the product design. (Splash 2) Information, Information Systems and Information Technology are different aspects of organizational management. Information is critical to the managers and workers of the organization to function, Information systems provide them with a structure to derive information and information technology is the technology behind the entire operation. Ã¢â¬Å"A distinctive feature of our programme, however, is its insistence on the need to study management and information systems in context, taking account of both professional, good practice models, and of the particular environments in which those models are applied.Ã¢â¬ (Heeks & McCourt 14) The information system depends on Management and Information System which is different from the management information system part. The management and information system is more concerned with the people, information and technology where all three are different parameters whereas management information systems have more to do with monitoring and quality control. The information systems identified for Splash is an electronic commerce website model which is a niche segment of the market. The pace at which the internet technology has developed today has made the e-commerce model an extremely successful one in which there is still a huge scope and market for the company to sell their products. The concept of reaching out to millions of customers across the globe and selling their unique style of cosmetic products is something which the Splash management should go for in their goal of expanding their existing business. Ã¢â¬Å"The internet makes it very easy for people to find goods, and it
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Human Dependent Lighting system CAREER EPISODE: 01 Human Dependent Lighting system INTRODUCTION: 1.1) A detailed description of the project Human Dependent Lightning System is presented in this career episode. I started this project with a team of three engineers including myself under the guidance of our tutor and head of department, during the initial months of 7th semester, Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication). This project was implemented as part of my academic curriculum Project 1 and it took us three months (July 2012 to September 2012) from inception, testing to implementation of the project. I was appointment as a group leader for this project by our tutor. BACKGROUND: 1.2) In every department of an industry, there is a wastage of electricity resulting in high electric bills. The wastage of electricity is mainly due to carelessness of users. For instance, lights in various departments would remain switched ON even after working hours, when employees were not present in the office. This leads to unnecessary wastage of electricity. In order to overcome this issue, we developed a human dependent lighting system to use the electricity smartly which can save huge amount of electricity. The human dependent lighting system is a project based on PIR sensors to detect human presence. A light intensity control circuitry is made to turn ON the required number of lights based on surrounding light intensity, thereby reducing the wastage of electricity. This project has a lot of potential and it can be applied to domestic and commercial use. 1.3) In Human Dependent Lighting System, we used PIR Sensor which is used to receive the infrared rays that are emitted by human body and Light Dependent Resistor(LDR) to measure the intensity of ambient light. On the output side, we used AC mains supply with loads, such as light connected with relays. These relays are operated based on the output of the controller with specific delays to provide safety to the loads and also to provide intelligent lighting system. 1.4) The system turns ON the required number of lights depending upon the surrounding ambient condition; hence switching OFF the unnecessary lights. The system maintains the required luminous intensity incorporating light received from the surrounding, thus using electricity smartly. Furthermore, we have used PIC12F675 controller equipped with a RISC architecture with inbuilt ADC and MPLAB IDE Version 8.63 software which is used for programming the controller. We have also used a display unit to show intensity levels and number of loads which are switched on. 1.5) Project Objectives The main objectives of the project are as follows: Build a prototype of an energy efficient lighting system with tomorrows technology, which will be eco-friendly and for a longer life span. Control the lighting system using PIR Sensor and Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) based on the Infrared (IR) light emanation by human or articles in its field of view, and Spread the awareness and benefits of using white LED. 1.6) Project Mechanism Ã Ã 1.7) My Roles and Responsibilities as a group leader (Engineer 1) included: Researching and selecting the most energy efficient micro controller. Programming the microcontroller using MPLAB IDE Version 8.63 software. Assisting in designing the circuit. Schedule weekly meetings and ensuring attendance of every team member Managing and ensuring that each stage of the project was completed within the stipulated timeline, and Maintaining the project documentation. PERSONAL ENGINEERING ACTIVITY 1.8) After the decision to build a prototype for Human Dependent Lighting System was made, the first step I took as a group leader was to select a microcontroller which could act as a brain for the unit and was also programmable. Post which, an exhaustive research referring to different data sheets of microcontrollers was carried out, which enabled me to come up with two appropriate microcontrollers for the project PIC12F629 and PIC12F675. Both the microcontrollers are PIC12 series microchips having same configuration except one attribute. PIC12F629 lacks Analog to Digital convertor, whereas PIC12F675 has inbuilt 10 bit 4 channels A/D converter which met one of the requirements of the project. Therefore, I selected PIC12F675 microcontroller, an 8-bit RISC architecture based controller used for detecting motion via PIR sensor. It was marked as the IN port for the micro controller. Whenever PIR (Passive Infrared Sensor) Sensor detects a motion due to the human presence or any movement in the room, it acts as an input which makes the lights turn ON. 1.9) One more reason to select PIC12F629 microcontroller, was to connect TRIMPOT to ADC (Analog to Digital converter) to determine the ON time for the system if there is no motion detected. For instance, if Trim POT is set for 10 seconds ON period and if no motion is detected inside the room where system is installed, then system will switch OFF the lights after 10 seconds. We used solar panels to charge the battery during the day time and during the night the system will use the battery to control the lighting systems. We also connected White LED/Relay Driver to OUT port of the PIC controller in order to control the driver or LED based on two inputs conditions: one based on PIR sensors and other from the Trim POT for ON time control. This driver circuit is based on Transistors. Furthermore, we used LT1086 voltage regulator in order to achieve +5V regulated supply for the system. The LT1086 is accessible in a 3-pin TO-220 bundle and a space-sparing surface mountable 3-pin DD bundle. Therefore, I went with this module, which is very handy and user friendly 1.10) Software Implementation I used MPLAB IDE Version 8.63 software to program the microcontroller which provides a development environment to perform and program various functions. This software offers memory mapping function to visualize each register. Errors were checked on troubleshooting and debugging the programs by building targets. If it was error free, various simulation ports of the controller were provided to check outputs. Software Implementation using MPLAB IDE version 8.63 1.11) Pseudo flow: I used this software since I wanted to achieve the following features: Power ON system stabilization time of 30 seconds. In 30 seconds, LED will blink with the 250ms ON and 250ms OFF time which is the indication of the stabilization period. Stabilize time is required for the PIR sensor which is connected as IN port to stabilize the sensors. Default state of White LED is OFF. If any motion is detected from PIR sensor it will trigger the IN port of PIC microcontroller. If the motion is detected it will send out a signal to the White LED/ Relay Driver, which will turn ON the light. If the motion is not detected and if the lights are ON then it will monitor the TRIM POT timing default which is set for 10 seconds and if for 10 seconds no motion is detected, the system will switch OFF the lights. 1.12) Hardware Implementation Designing of the circuit was an arduous task for us. We completed an exhaustive training program in order to design the circuit proficiently and keeping the IEEE code of conduct guidelines in our mind. The first task was to develop the circuit diagram using EasyEDA software. After following the necessary guidelines to design a circuit, we acquired the skills such as soldering using flux, component placement, placement of ground and power plane, avoid overlapping of analog and digital planes. Furthermore, we took safety measures such as wearing perfect gear for soldering or while connecting the circuit with external power supply. We also read instructions and manuals for understanding implementation of electric components in the safest way. The following picture depicts the basic hardware developed by us for human dependent lighting system. Hardware Implementation SUMMARY: 1.13) After building the prototype, we completed our project by testing and maintaining the documentation. The project was submitted with a presentation along with the working prototype and reports which was assessed by our tutor and head of the department. The overall project journey was a great experience in terms of learning new skill every day which was a boost to my technical and leadership skills. I faced many ups and downs especially during the training but working with a team was an added advantage for me to divide the load/task in parts and made the implementation of the project successful within the stipulated time. This project has lots of potential and it can be applied to commercial and domestic use.